Selective Bibliography on Ethnic Minorities, Racism and the Mass Media

 

Teun A. van Dijk

Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona.


Version 8.0 (April, 2003).

 

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This selective bibliography primarily focuses on the portrayal of ethnic minorities, immigrants and refugees in the mass media, especially in the written press. Some references are included about the representation of minorities in television, radio, film, and advertising. Also, only some works are mentioned about minority media and minority journalists. For a more detailed bibliography of Blacks in/and the media in earlier publications, see the bibliography by Snorgrass & Woody (1985).

 

Missing references may be sent to:

 

Teun A. van Dijk

E-mail: vandijk?discourses.org (of course, replace ? by @ when sending mail).

 

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Adams, S. L. (1985). Blackening the media: The state of Blacks in the press. In J. D. Williams (Ed.), The State of Black America. New York: National Urban League.

 

Aguirre, A., & Bustamante, D. A. (1993). Critical Notes Regarding the Dislocation of Chicanos by the Spanish-Language Television Industry in the United- States. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 16(1), 121-132.

 

Ainley, B. (1998). Black journalists, white media. Stoke on Trent (UK): Trentham Books.

 

All Faiths for One Race. (1980). Read all about it. A study of race relations reporting in newspapers. London.

 

Allen, R. L. (1993). Conceptual models of an African-American belief system: A program of research. In Gordon L. Berry, & Joy Keiko Asamen (Eds.), Children & television: Images in a changing sociocultural world. (pp. 155-176). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

 

Allen, R. L., & Bielby, W. T. (1977). Blacks´ relationship with the print media. Journalism Quarterly 54, 488-545.

 

American Indians and the Media. Neglect and stereotype. (1979) Special issue of Journalism History, 6, 34-53.

 

American Society of Newspaper Editors (1972). Committee on minority employment. Committee on education in journalism. ASNE on minorities. Columbia Journalism Review 11, 51-51.

 

American Society of Newspaper Editors (1982). Minorities and newspapers: A report by the Committee on minorities.

 

Ames, J. D. (1938). Editorial treatment of lynchings. Public Opinion Quarterly 2, 77-84.

 

Anwar, M. (1978). Who tunes in to what? London: Commission for Racial Equality.

 

Anwar, M. (1983). Ethnic minority broadcasting. London: Commission for Racial Equality.

 

Anwar, M., & Shang, A. (1982). Television in a multi-racial society. London: Commission for Racial Equality.

 

Araújo, J. Z. (2000). Identidade racial e estereótipos sobre o negro na TV Brasileira. In Guimarães, A. S. A., & Huntley, L. (Eds.), Tirando a máscara. Ensaios sobre o racismo no Brasil. (pp. 77-95). São Paulo: Paz e Terra.

 

Armstrong, G. B. (1992). TV Entertainment, News, and Racial Perceptions of College Students. Journal of Communication, 42(3), 153-76.

 

Armstrong, G. B., Neuendorf, K. A., & Brentar, J. E. (1992). TV Entertainment, News, and Racial Perceptions of College-Students. Journal of Communication, 42(3), 153-176.

 

Astor, G. (1974). Minorities and the media. New York: Office of Reports, Ford Foundation.

 

Astor, G. (1974). Minorities and the media. New York: Office of Reports, Ford Foundation.

 

Atkan, M. (1981). Gastarbeiter und Massenmedien: Ghettosituation im massenkommunikativen Bereich (Guestworkers and mass media: Ghetto situation in the field of mass communication). Migration 1, 73-93.

 

Atkan, M. (1981). Gastarbeiter und Massenmedien: Ghettosituation im massenkommunikativen Bereich (Guestworkers and mass media: Ghetto situation in the field of mass communication). Migration 1, 73-93.

 

Atkin, C., Greenberg, B., & McDermott, S. (1983). Television and race role socialization. Journalism Quarterly, 60, 407-414.

 

Atkin, C., Greenberg, B., & McDermott, S. (1983). Television and race role socialization. Journalism Quarterly, 60, 407-414.

 

Atkin, D. (1992). An Analysis of Television Series with Minority-Lead Characters. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 9(4), 337-349.

 

Austin, E. W., & Nelson, C. L. (1993). Influences of Ethnicity, Family Communication, and Media on Adolescents Socialization to United-States Politics. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 37(4), 419-435.

 

Bagdikian, B. H. (1968). Editorial responsibility in times of urban disorder. In C. V. Daly (Ed.), The media and the cities, (pp. 13-24). Chicago, IL: Chicago University Center of Policy Study.

 

Bagley, C. (1973). Race relations and the press. Race 15, 1, 61-89.

 

Balon, R. E., et al., (1978) How sex and race affect perceptions of newscasters. Journalism Quarterly 55, 160-163.

 

Bañón Hernandez, A. M. (1996). Racismo, discurso periodístico y didáctica de la lengua. (Racism, media discourse and language pedagogy). Almeria: Universidad de Almeria.

 

Bañón Hernández, A. M. (2002). Discurso e inmigración. Propuestas para el análisis de un debate social. Prólogo de Teun A. van Dijk. Murcia: Universidad de Murcia.

 

Baptiste, D. A. (1986). The image of the Black family portrayed by television: A critical comment. Marriage and Family Review, 10(1), 41-65.

 

Baran, S. J. (1978). Dying black/Dying white: Coverage in six newspapers. Journal of Broadcasting 22, 299-308.

 

Barbrook, R. (1992). Broadcasting and National Identity in Ireland. Media Culture & Society, 14(2), 203-227.

 

Bassett, J. (1967). Watts and the need for press involvement. In P. L. Fisher, & R. L. Lowenstein (Eds.), Race and the news media, (pp. 37-43). New York: Praeger.

 

Beatty-Brown, F. R. (1951). The Negro as portrayed by the St. Louis Post Dispatch from 1920 to 1950. Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Ph. D. Dissertation.

 

Becker, L. B., Kosicki, G. M., & Jones, F. (1992). Racial-Differences in Evaluations of the Mass-Media. Journalism Quarterly, 69(1), 124-134.

 

Bender, M. (1968). The Black community --Whitewashed in the news? Can coverage be improved? American Press 86, 30-31.

 

Bennett, L. (1968). The white media. In C. V. Daly (Ed.), The media and the cities, (pp. 7-12). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

 

Berg, M., & Trépagny, V. (1999). I andra länder. Historiska perspektiv på svensk förmedling av det främmande : En antologi. Lund: Historiska media.

 

Berry, G. L. (1980). Television and Afro-Americans: Past legacy and present portrayals. In S. B. Withey & R. P. Abeles (Eds.), Television and social behavior. (pp. 231-247). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

 

Berry, G. L. (1988). Multicultural role portrayals on television as a social psychological issue. In Stuart Oskamp (Ed.), Television as a social issue. Applied social psychology annual, Vol. 8. (pp. 118-129). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.

 

Bertelson, A. B. (1967). Keeper of a monster. In P. L. Fisher, & R. L. Lowenstein (Eds.), Race and the news media, (pp. 61-62). New York: Praeger.

 

Bickel, P., Klein, A., Reinecke, S., & Rodriguez-Schäfer, L. (1989). Fremdenfeindlichkeit in den Medien. (Xenophobia in the media). Ein Video-Projekt. kultuRRevolution, 21, 19-21.

 

Black images in the mass media (1974). Freedomways 14, 181-187.

 

Blanchard, E. D. (1968). The poor people and the 'White press'. Columbia Journalism Review 7, (3), 61-65.

 

Block, C. (1972). White backlash to Negro ads: Fact or fantasy? Journalism Quarterly, 49, 253-262.

 

Bodenhausen, G. V., Schwarz, N., Bless, H., & Wanke, M. (1995). Effects of atypical exemplars on racial beliefs: Enlightened racism or generalized appraisals? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 31(1), 48-63.

 

Bodenhausen, G. V., Schwarz, N., Bless, H., & Wanke, M. (1995). Effects of atypical exemplars on racial beliefs: Enlightened racism or generalized appraisals? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 31(1), 48-63.

 

Bogart, L. (1972). Negro and white media exposure: New evidence. Journalism Quarterly 49, (2), 15-21.

 

Bond, J. C. (1975). Media images of Black women. Freedomways 15, (1), 34-37.

 

Bonnafous, S. (1989). Racisme et non-racisme: étude de presse. (Racism and non-racism: A press study). Mots 12, 43-63.

 

Bonnafous, S. (1991). L'immigration prise aux mots. (Immigration taken by its word). Paris: Editions Kime.

 

Bonnafous, S., & Fiala, P. (1984). L'argumentation dans les éditoriaux de droite et d'extrême droite (1973)-(1982). (Argumentation in right-wing and ultra-right wing editorials). Paris: Institut de langue francaise (CNRS) and Ecole Normale Superieure de Saint Cloud.

 

Boone, B. (1967). Southern newsman and local pressure. In P. L. Fisher, & P. E. Lowenstein (Eds.), Race and the news media, (pp. 47-53). New York: Praeger.

 

Bosbach, F. (1992). Feindbilder die Darstellung des Gegners in der politischen Publizistik des Mittelalters und der Neuzeit. Köln: Böhlau.

 

Boskin, J. (1980). Denials: The media view of dark skins and the city. In B. Rubin (Ed.), Small voices and great trumpets: Minorities and the media, (pp. 141-147). New York: Praeger.

 

Bourque, R., & Touré, B. P. (1987). L´image des groupes ethniques dans les médias québécois. (Québec): Association des travailleurs immigrants et québécois.

 

Bovenkerk, F. (1978). Rasdiscriminatie bij misdaadverslaggeving in de pers. (Racial discrimination in crime reporting in the press). In F. Bovenkerk (Ed.), Omdat zij anders zijn. Patronen van rasdiscriminatie in Nederland (Because they are different. Patterns of racial discrimination in the Netherlands). Meppel: Boom.

 

Bovenkerk, F. (1978). Rasdiskriminatie in Nederland? (Racial Discrimination in the Netherlands? ) In F. Bovenkerk (Ed.), Omdat zij anders zijn. (Because They are Different). (pp. 9-30). Meppel: Boom.

 

Bovenkerk, F., & Bovenkerk-Teerinks, W. (1972). Surinamers and Antillianen in de Nederlandse pers. (Surinamese and Antillians in the Dutch Press). Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam, Anthropological-Sociological Center. <Unpublished Report>

 

Braham, P. (1982). How the media report race. In M. Gurevitch, et al. (Eds.), Culture, society and the media, (pp. 268-286). London: Methuen.

 

Brechner, J. L. (1967). Were broadcasters color blind? In P. L. Fisher, & R. L. Lowenstein (Eds.), Race and the news media, (pp. 98-104). New York: Praeger.

 

Broer, G. (1995). Wie Journalisten mit Rassismus umgehen. Zusammenhange von journalistischen Arbeitsformen und Darstellungsweisen. (How Journalists deal with racism. Relationships between journalistic practices and forms of representation). Munster: Agenda-Verlag.

 

Brosius, H. B., & Esser, F. (1995). Eskalation durch Berichterstattung?. Massenmedien und fremdenfeindliche Gewalt. (Escalation through reporting? Mass media and xenophobic violence). Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.

 

Brown, C. (1974). The ghetto view of crime. Race Relations Reporter, 16-18.

 

Browne, D. R. (1996). Electronic media and indigenous peoples. A voice of our own?. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press.

 

Brune, Y. (1985). Journalisten som verklighetens dramaturg (The journalist as reality's playwrite). In Invandrare i tystnadsspiralen (Immigrants in the spiral of silence). Stockholm: Report av diskrimineringsutredningen (Report of the Committee on Discrimination).

 

Brune, Y. (1998). Mörk magi i vita medier. Svensk nyhetsjournalistik om invandrare, flyktingar och rasism. Stockholm: Carlsson.

 

Buchholz, M. (1990). Racial References in the Texas Press, 1813-1836. Journalism Quarterly, 67(3), 586-591.

 

Burgoon, J. K., Buller, D. B., Burgoon, M., Coker, D. A., & Coker, R. (1987). Minorities and Journalism: Career Orientations Among High-School Students. Journalism Quarterly, 64, 434-443.

 

Burgoon, M., Burgoon, J. K., & Shatzer, M. J. (1987). Ethnic differences in the evaluation of newspaper image. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 11(1), 49-64.

 

Burkhart, F. N., Sigelman, C., & Frith, K. T. (1997). The Case of Alvarez vs Albertson: Effects of Authors Ethnicity on Evaluation of News Stories. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 74(2), 304-314.

 

Butterworth, E. (1966). The 1962 smallpox outbreak and the British press. Race 3(4).

 

Caldas, S. J., & Bankston, C. (1999). Black-and-White TV: Race, Television Viewing, and Academic-Achievement. Sociological Spectrum, 19(1), 39-61.

 

Camacho Hurtado, E. (1999). El negro en el contexto social. (Cali): Editores del Pacífico Ltda..

 

Campaign Against Racism and Fascism (CARF) (1984). Race reporting: The Newham Recorder and the Newham 8. Searchlight, March (1984).

 

Campaign Against Racism in the Media (CARM). (1977). In black and white: Racist reporting and how to fight it. London.

 

Campbell, C. P. (1995). Race, myth and the news. London, CA: Sage.

 

Carey, P. (1996). Media law. London: Sweet & Maxwell.

 

Carmichael, J. V., & Shontz, M. L. (1996). The Last Socially Acceptable Prejudice: Gay and Lesbian Issues, Social-Responsibilities, and Coverage of These Topics in Mlis MLS Programs. Library Quarterly, 66(1), 21-58.

 

Carter, H. (1967). The wave beneath the froth. In P. L. Fisher, & R. L. Lowenstein (Eds.), Race and the news media, 54-58. New York: Praeger.

 

Carter, R. E. (1950). Racial identification effects upon the news story writer. Journalism Quarterly 36, 3, 284-290.

 

Cashmore, E. (1997). The black culture industry. London New York: Routledge.

 

Caspari, G. (1982). Media performance at the inflection point. Coverage of racial conflict in Milwaukee in (1967). <Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for the Education in Journalism, Corvallis, OR, August 6-9, 30 pp. >

 

Cassidy, C. M. (1992). Pro Rege, Lege and Grege: Newspaper Accounts of the Jamaica Insurrection and Its Aftermath. Victorian Periodicals Review, 25(1), 3-6.

 

Caudill, E. (1989). Darwinism in the press: The evolution of an idea. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

 

Chaffee, S. H., Nass, C. I., & Yang, S. M. (1990). The Bridging Role of Television in Immigrant Political-Socialization. Human Communication Research, 17(2), 266-288.

 

Chaudhary, A. G. (1979). Press portrayals of Black officials, Journalism Quarterly 57, 636-641.

 

Christmas, R. (1999). A place called Dixon: Multiculturalism. Toronto: CBC Non-Broadcast Sales.

 

Clark, C. (1969). Television and social controls: Some observation of the portrayal of ethnic minorities. Television Quarterly, 8, 18-22.

 

Cohen, P., & Gardner, C. (Ed.). (1982). It ain't half racist mum: Fighting racism in the media. London: Comedia.

 

Cohen, S., & Young, J. (Eds.). (1981). The manufacture of news. Deviance, social problems and the mass media. 2nd. edition. London: Constable & Beverly Hills: Sage.

 

Colle, R. D. (1968). Negro image in the mass media: A case study in social change, Journalism Quarterly 45, 1, 55-60.

 

Commission for Racial Equality. (1982). Television in a multi-racial society. London.

 

Community Relations Commission. (1975). Race and the media. London.

 

Conaway, C. B. (1999). Crown Heights: Politics and Press Coverage of the Race War That Wasn’t. Polity, 32(1), 93-118.

 

Cormack, M. (1998). Minority Language Media in Western-Europe: Preliminary Considerations. European Journal of Communication, 13(1), 33-52.

 

Cottle, S. (1991). Reporting the Rushdie Affair: A Case-Study in the Orchestration of Public-Opinion. Race & Class, 32(4), 45-64.

 

Cottle, S. (1992). "Race", racialization and the media: A review and update of research. Sage Race Relations Abstracts, 17 (2), 3-57.

 

Cottle, S. (1998). Making Ethnic-Minority Programs Inside the BBC: Professional Pragmatics and Cultural Containment. Media Culture & Society, 20(2), 295+.

 

Cottle, S. (Ed.). (2000). Ethnic Minorities and the Media. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.

 

Covin, D. (1991). Black consciousness in the White media: The case of Brazil. Western Journal of Black Studies, 15(2), 95-102.

 

Critcher, C., Parker, M., & Sondhi, R. (1977). Race in the provincial press: A case study of five West Midlands papers. In UNESCO, Ethnicity in the media. (pp. 25-192). Paris: Unesco.

 

Cumberbatch, G., & Howitt, D. (1989). A measure of uncertainty: The effects of the mass media. London: John Libbey & Company.

 

Dalancy, V. (1943). Newspapers and the Negro. The Quill, November-December, 3-5.

 

Dalsimer, S. (1967). The justice of persuasion. In P. L. Fisher, & R. L. Lowenstein (Eds.), Race and the news media. (pp. 113-120). New York: Praeger.

 

Daniel, J. L., & Allen, A. (1988). Newsmagazines, public policy, and the Black agenda. In G. Smitherman-Donaldson, & T. A. van Dijk (Eds.), Discourse and Discrimination, 23-45. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press.

 

Darkow, M., Eckhardt, J., Maletzke, G. (1985). Massenmedien und Ausländer in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Mass media and foreigners in the Federal Republic of Germany). Frankfurt am Main.

 

Dates, J. L., & Barlow, W. (Eds.). (1990). Split image: African Americans in the mass media. Washington, DC: Howard University Press.

 

Dates, J. L., & Gandy, O. (1984). The Jackson presidential campaign. Setting the public agenda. <Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Speech Communication Association, Chicago, IL, November 1-4, 22 pp. >

 

Dates, J. L., & Gandy, O. H. (1985). How Ideological Constraints Affected Coverage of the Jackson,Jesse Campaign. Journalism Quarterly, 62, 595.

 

Davis, J. L., & Gandy, O. H. (1999). Racial Identity and Media Orientation: Exploring the Nature of Constraint. Journal of Black Studies, 29(3), 367-397.

 

Davis, R. A. (1987). Television commercials and the management of spoiled identity. Western Journal of Black Studies, 11(2), 59-63.  De Mott, J. (1981). White racism in the newspaper. The Masthead 33(4), 6-11.

 

De Mott, J. (1981). White racism in the newspaper. The Masthead 33, no. 4, 6-11.

 

De Mott, J., & Roberts, R. (1979). White racism, Blacks, and mass communication: An instruction source bibliography. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism, Houston, TX, August 3-8.

 

Deepe Keever, B. A., Martindale, C., & Weston, M. A. (Eds.). (1997). U.S. Coverage of Racial Minorities. A Sourcebook, 1934-1996. Westport, CN: Greenwood.

 

Delgado, M. (1972). Die Gastarbeiter in der Presse (Guestworkers in the press). Opladen: Leske Verlag.

 

Demeter, J. (1986). Winter in America. Notes on media and race. Radical America 20, no. 5. 63-71.

 

D'hondt, S. (1994). Nationalistische ideologie in twee Nederlandse dagbladen. (Nationalistic ideology in two Dutch dailies). Antwerp Papers in Linguistics, No. 76. University of Antwerp: Dept. of German.

 

Dines, G., & Humez, J. M. (Eds.). (1995). Gender, race and class in the media. London: Sage.

 

Dodd, D. K., Anderson, H. T., & Foerch, B. J. (1988). Content-Analysis of Women and Racial Minorities As News Magazine Cover Persons. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 3(3), 231-236.

 

Dodson, D. (1969). Coverage of racial problems in Milwaukee;s daily newspapers, Berkeley, CA: AEJ Convention paper.

 

Doreski, C. (1998). Writing America Black: Race rhetoric in the public sphere. Cambridge New York: Cambridge University Press.

 

Dorr, A. (1982). Television and the socialization of the minority child. In G. L. Berry & C. Mitchell-Kernan (Eds.), Television and the socialization of the minority child. New York: Academic Press.

 

Downing, J. D. H. (1975). The balanced (white) view. In C. Husband (Ed.), White media and black Britain. London: Arrow.

 

Downing, J. D. H. (1980). The Media Machine. London: Pluto.

 

Downing, J. D. H. (1985). 'Coillons. . . Shryned in an Hogges Toord': British news media discourse on 'Race'. In: T. A. Van Dijk (Ed.), Discourse and communication. (pp. 295-323). Berlin: de Gruyter.

 

Downing, J. D. H. (1988). ´The Cosby Show´ and American Racial Discourse. In D. G. Smitherman, & T. A. van Dijk (Eds.), Discourse and Discrimination. (pp. 46-73). Detroit: Wayne State University Press.

 

Dröge, F. W. (1967). Publizistik und Vorurteil. (Media studies and prejudice). Münster.

 

DuCharme, M. (1986). The coverage of Canadian immigration policy in the Globe and Mail, (1980)-(1985). Currents 3(3), 6-11. (2)

 

Duncan, N. (1996). Discourses on public violence and the reproduction of racism. South African Journal of Psychology, 26(3), 172-182.

 

Dworkin, A., Rubin, G., Dines, G., Myers, K., Kuhn, A., Collins, P. H., Mayall, A., Russell, D. E. H., & Jensen, R., et al. (1995). Modes of sexual representation 2--Pornography. In Gail Dines, & Jean M. Humez (Eds.), Gender, race, and class in media: A text-reader. (pp. 229-318). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

 

Eastman, H., & Liss, M. (1980). Ethnicity and children's preferences. Journalism Quarterly, 57, 277-280.

 

Ebel, M., & Fiala, P. (1983). Sous le consensus, la xénophobie (Under the consensus, the xenophobia). Lausanne: Institut de sciences politiques.

 

Educational Resource Cooperative. (1978). Detecting prejudice: A handbook for you on discrimination in visual materials. Montreal: The Committee.

 

Eggerking, K., & Plater, D. (1992). Signposts: A guide to reporting Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander, and ethnic affairs. Sydney: University of Technology Australian Centre for Independent Journalism.

 

Elebash, C., & Rosene, J. (1982). Issues in political advertising in a deep South gubernatorial race. Journalism Quarterly, 59, 420-423.

 

Entman, R. M. (1990). Modern Racism and the Images of Blacks in Local Television-News. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 7(4), 332-345.

 

Entman, R. M. (1992). Blacks in the News: Television, Modern Racism and Cultural-Change. Journalism Quarterly, 69(2), 341-361.

 

Erickson, C. A. (1981). Hispanic Americans and the press. Journal of Intergroup Relations 9, no. 1, 3-16.

 

Ettema, J. S. (1990). Press Rites and Race-Relations: A Study of Mass- Mediated Ritual. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 7(4), 309-331.

 

European Commission.. (1997). Newsletter for the European year against racism.. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

 

Evans, H. (1971). A positive policy. In Race and the Press. London: Runnymede Trust.  Evans, P. (1976). Publish and be damned? London: Runnymede Trust.

 

Evans, P. (1976). Publish and be damned? London: Runnymede Trust.

 

Ezeh, P. (1986). Racist Bomb Hits Jeune Afrique. New African, 22-23.

 

Faber, R. J., Meyer, T. P., & Oguinn, T. C. (1986). Diversity in the Ethnic Media Audience: A Study of Spanish Language Broadcast Preference in the US International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 10(3), 347-359.

 

Fair, J. E., & Astroff, R. J. (1991). Constructing Race and Violence: United-States News Coverage and the Signifying Practices of Apartheid. Journal of Communication, 41(4), 58-74.

 

Fanning, L. S. (1967). The media: Observer or participant? In P. L. Fisher, & R. L. Lowenstein (Eds.), Race and the news media (pp. 107-112). New York: Praeger.

 

Feagin, J. R. (1992). On not taking gendered racism seriously: The failure of the mass media and the social sciences. Special Issue: Behavioral science and public affairs. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 28(3), 400-406.

 

Fedler, F. (1973). The media and minority groups: A study of adequacy of access. Journalism Quarterly 50, 1, 109-117.

 

Ferguson, R. (1998). Representing "race": Ideology, identity, and the media. London New York: Arnold.

 

Field, M. (1944). Color line in the news. Negro Digest, August, 71-74.

 

Fife, M. (1987). Promoting Racial Diversity in United-States Broadcasting: Federal-Policies Versus Social Realities. Media Culture & Society, 9, 481-504.

 

Fisher, P. L., & Lowenstein, R. L. (Eds.). (1967). Race and the news media. New York: Praeger.

 

Fitzgerald, T. K. (1991). Media and Changing Metaphors of Ethnicity and Identity. Media Culture & Society, 13(2), 193-214.

 

Focus on racism in the media. (1992). Extra 5(5), July/August. Special issue.

 

Frasca, R. (1988). Estimating the Occurrence of Trials Prejudiced by Press Coverage. Judicature, 72(3), 162-169.

 

Gabriel, J. (1998). Whitewash: Racialized politics and the media. London New York: Routledge.

 

Gandy, O. H. (1998). Communication and race: A structural perspective. London New York: Arnold.

 

Gandy, O. H., & Coleman, L. G. (1986). The Jackson campaign: Mass media and Black student perceptions. Journalism Quarterly, 63, 138-143.

 

Gandy, O. H., & Coleman, L. G. (1986). Watch Jesse Run and Tell Me What You See: A 1st Look at Student Perceptions of the Jackson,Jesse Presidential Candidacy. Journal of Black Studies, 16, 293-306.

 

Gandy, O. H., Matabane, P. W., & Omachonu, J. O. (1987). Media use, reliance, and active participation: Exploring student awareness of the South African conflict. Communication Research, 14(6), 644-663.

 

Garrett, G. (1994). It´s Everybody´s War: Racism and the World War Two Documentary. Journal of Popular Film and Television, 22(2), 70-78.

 

Gearing, B. (1985). The convergence of race and crime news. Sage race relations Abstracts 10(3).

 

Gerbner, G., & Signiorelli, N. (1979). Women and minorities in television drama (1969-1978). Philadelphia: Annenberg School of Communication, University of Pennsylvania.

 

Gilbert, B. (1968). Race coverage. ASNE Bulletin 515, 1-2, 13.

 

Gilens, M. (1996). Race and Poverty in America: Public Misperceptions and the American News Media. Public Opinion Quarterly, 60(4), 515-541.

 

Gilens, M. (1999). Why Americans hate welfare: Race, media, and the politics of antipoverty policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

 

Ginsburg, C. (1989). Race and the media: The enduring life of the Moynihan Report. New York: Institute for Media Analysis.

 

Giroux, H. A. (1997). Channel surfing: Race talk and the destruction of today´s youth. New York: St. Martin´s Press.

 

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