Paper for a
symposium on Human Rights in Textbooks, organized by the History
Racism, Discourse and Textbooks
The coverage of immigration in Spanish textbooks
Teun A. van Dijk
In this paper I examine some properties of the
discursive reproduction of racism in textbooks in
Not all discourse types are equally relevant though in these processes of social reproduction. Obviously, news reports in the press are more important than the weather report in this sense. Thus, because of their impact on the formation of beliefs of many people, public discourses have a more significant primary influence than personal, private text and talk. There is little doubt that the discourses of the mass media in contemporary society play a leading role in the reproduction of socially shared beliefs.
The same is true for educational discourse. Among the few discourse types that are ‘obligatory’ for some of the participants, namely the students, forms of educational discourse such as lessons and textbooks, play a prominent role in the reproduction of society. Besides their overt contents aiming at the acquisition of standard knowledge in society and culture, textbooks and their hidden curricula also play an important role in the reproduction of dominant ideologies, such as those of race, gender and class. It is therefore important to examine in some detail how textbooks do this (Apple, 1979, 1982, 1993; Apple & Christian-Smith, 1991).
Also because of increasing migration, most contemporary
societies are more or less multicultural or multiethnic. Also
Against the background of these general dimensions of
discourse and the reproduction of racism, and the more specific ones of
role of textbooks in the discursive reproduction of racism, this paper
examine some properties of the coverage of immigration and minorities
contemporary textbooks in
The case of
There are several other reasons to examine the
representation of immigration and minorities in Spanish textbooks.
all, several studies suggest that increasing immigration has been
by increasing racism, and that in that respect
In the present paper, thus, it is interesting to
investigate whether such a special situation of
It has been assumed above that racism as a system of social inequality daily reproduces itself through social practices, such as various forms of discrimination, exclusion, problematization, or marginalization (Back & Solomos, 2000; Bulmer & Solomos, 1999; Essed, 1991; Essed & Goldberg, 2002; Feagin, Vera & Batur, 2001)
A crucial social practice in this case is discourse, language use or communication. Both as directed at minorities or immigrants, for instance in everyday conversation, as well as about Others in everyday talk as well as public elite discourse in politics, media, education and research, discourse plays a fundamental role in the perpetuation of racism. The same is true, incidentally, for the reproduction of antiracism as a system of resistance and opposition.
Despite the vast differences between countries, ethnic groups and discourse genres involved, racist discourse has a number of characteristic general properties. First of all, as is the case for most ideologically based text and talk, racist discourse tends to be polarized in the sense that it features a negative representation of Them, combined with a positive representation of Us. Century-old prejudices and stereotypes fed by an ideology of racial (white) superiority have thus left their traces in contemporary collective beliefs about non European peoples. Such polarized representations can manifest themselves at all levels of discourse, such as the choice of topics, the way discourse participants are represented, in the syntactic means to emphasize or de-emphasize agency and responsibility for good and bad actions, in metaphors and in general in the way our good things and their bad things are being enhanced or mitigated. We find such biased representations in most political discourse, in the mass media as well as in textbooks (Reisigl & Wodak, 2000, 2001; Van Dijk, 1984, 1987a, 1991, 1993; Wodak & van Dijk, 2000).
Racism in textbooks
Textbooks are known to be shaped by the dominant ideologies of society. They are intended not only as means to realize the explicit curriculum of socially accepted knowledge, but also as the conduit for prevailing norms, values and attitudes. It is therefore not surprising that they also have been one of the main sites for the formulation of racist or Eurocentric ideas, first about the peoples of the Third world, and then about those from the South immigration to Europe and Northern America. Whereas such racism in the early 20th century and until the Second World War was quite explicit, and formulated in terms of white superiority, contemporary forms of racism in textbooks have become more subtle and implicit. Research on racism in textbooks of the last decades has found the following typical characteristics:
· Exclusion: immigrants and minorities do not or barely appear as groups represented in textbooks. Even when significant groups of immigrants are present, many textbooks still represent society as homogeneous, monocultural and ‘white’. Diversity is not celebrated as a positive value.
· Difference: if represented at all, immigrants, minorities and in general non European peoples tend to be described as essentially different from us; differences are emphasized and similarities are de-emphasized.
· Exotism: The ‘positive’ side of the emphasis on difference is the enhancement of the exotic, strange or otherwise distant nature of the Others. This is especially the case for peoples living far away, or for the first small groups of immigrants from such peoples.
· Stereotyping: Representations of the Others tend to be stereotypical, schematic and fixed. Textbooks often repeat each other in the reproduction of such stereotypes about poverty, lacking modernity, backwardness, and so on.
· Positive self-presentation of Us: Our own group (Europeans, nationals, etc.) are attributed many positive characteristics: Technologically advanced, democratic, well-organized, knowledgeable, and so on. Typically, We are being represented as actively helping or assisting (passive) Them.
· Negative representation of Them: Besides the usual stereotypes, Others may also be attributed many negative characteristics, such as being violent, criminal, illegal, using drugs, authoritarian, undemocratic, backward, passive, lazy or lacking intelligence.
denial of racism: The positive
representation of Us also implies the
or mitigation of the negative representation of Us. Thus, our history
colonialism, aggression or racism tends to be ignored or reduced.
typically represented as of the past (slavery, segregation in the
· Lacking voice: The Others are not only represented stereotypically and negatively, but also passively and as lacking voice. We talk and write about Them, but they are seldom heard or represented as speaking and giving their own opinion, and even less when saying critical things about Us.
· Text and Images: Many of the characteristics mentioned above not only are exhibited in text, but also in images, which typically exhibit the exotic, negative or problematic dimensions of Others or other countries. Thus, we will typically see a picture of ‘huts’ in Africa or igloos in Canada, rather than of a traffic jam among skyscrapers of many cities in Africa, Asia or Latin America.
· Assignments: The didactic dimensions of textbooks often presuppose the exclusive presence of ‘white’ students in class, addressing them specifically and inviting them to reflect about the Others as if these were not also present in class.
Many of these characteristics are not explicitly racist, but contribute to an overall stereotypical image of a homogeneous monocultural society, and of Them as being distant, different, absent or more or less subtly inferior to Us Europeans. Once immigrants and minorities are being represented, such representations may remain more or less stereotypical or negative – as Them, rather than as part of Us. Problems of multicultural societies tend to be emphasized, whereas the many positive aspects of diversity are ignored or played down. Immigrants tend to be portrayed as creating problems for us, rather than as contributing to our economic prosperity or cultural diversity.
These general characteristics of textbooks are more
countries where immigrants or minority groups are recent. Thus, in the
Under the influence of international debates on immigration, this also means that Spanish textbooks are already markedly better than for instance Dutch textbooks 20 years ago (for Dutch textbooks, see Van Dijk, 1987b). Let us illustrate this general observation in more detail.
In the remainder of this paper we examine some Spanish
social science of obligatory secondary education (ESO), which in
for adolescents between 12 and 16. Social science in general is taught
with history and geography, and textbooks tend to be integrated. Some
autonomous regions use their own textbooks, in their own language. Thus
The Catalan textbook we have examined is called Marca (Vicens Vives, 1rst edition, Barcelona 2003), used in the second year of secondary education. It combines social sciences, geography and history and is written by a team of 5 authors (A. Albet Mas, B. Benejam Arguimbau, M. García Sebastián, C. Gatell Arimont, and J. Roig Obiol, of which the first is professor of geography and the others secondary school teachers). The first volume of this book, written for the first year of ESO features a part on physical geography, and history from prehistoric times to the Greek and Roman empires, and sections on Catalunya in the times of the Greeks and the Romans. The volume we shall examine, Volume 2, continues the history part of this book, focusing on the Middle Ages, with a special section on the Iberic peninsula.
Relevant for our analysis of immigration are the passages
Arabic period of
The rest of the textbook is about the geography of the
demography, migration, social and political organization, rural and
A first categorization and polarization between the
the “underdeveloped” world is made according to different “demographic
with high and low birth rates, respectively (pp. 166 ff.). The
“explosion” in the underdeveloped countries (nearly all in the South,
appropriately colored orange on the world map, p. 167), which is also
as a consequence of medical and sanitary advances (“coming from the
world”) is thus compared to the sometimes negative population growth in
developed countries in the North (colored green on the map). Low birth rates in the developed countries is
explained in terms of increasing numbers of women entering the work
different attitudes about having children now these are no longer
economic reasons. Rather strangely, no mention is made of the
increasing use of
anticonception. For the “underdeveloped” world, high birth rates are
in terms of the economic necessity of having many children, the social
marginalization of women, and religious beliefs. No such references are
for the religious beliefs in developed nations such as the
A separate chapter is dedicated to migration and
structure (pp. 172 ff). Migration is explained in terms of economic
in the world. Several pictures on the first page of the chapter
multicultural population in the
It is clear that migration flows are rather generated by the adverse conditions in the countries of origin and not so much by the attraction factors in the places of destination. Thus it is the desperation of the inhabitants of many countries in the South which presently give rise to the migration flows toward the countries of the North (p. 176).
A drawing linking “attraction territories” and “expelling territories” (territoris de repulsió) shows a worried picture of a man in the first, and a happy picture of a man in the latter, transmitted by TV to the first. Again, we see that the main explanation of migration is the negative motivation of people in poor countries, rather than the needs of rich countries. Also, this drawing seems to imply that people in poor countries are unhappy and that immigrants in rich countries are happy, thus contributing to unfounded generalizations and stereotypes, and to ignorance about the actual living and working conditions of immigrants in rich countries.
The authors of the textbook are of the opinion that measures need to be taken against the “explosion” of migration. Thus, there will be less migration from poor countries if the following actions are taken (p. 176):
· Growing investments in technology, education, health care and infrastructure in the poor countries.
· Import barriers in underdeveloped countries need to be lowered so that imported goods can generate wealth.
· Social and political changes (more democracy) will favor progress.
First of all, this passage implies that migration is a problem (“explosion”) that need to be solved. Secondly, the solution is sought in the poor countries and not in the rich countries. Thirdly, lowering import barriers in poor countries first of all benefits the rich exporting countries. No mention is made of the necessity to lower import barriers in the rich countries so that poor countries can export their products. And finally, the poor countries are stereotypically associated with social inequality and lacking democracy. That many of the undemocratic regimes in the South have been created and supported by the ‘democratic’ regimes of the North is another fact that is not fit to be read about by school kids. Thus, the textbook gradually construes a polarized picture of the rich, democratic North and the poor undemocratic South, and immigrants are associated with the latter.
After a brief description of the consequences of migration for the sending and the receiving countries (in rich countries immigrants do work others do not want to do), the focus of the next section is on migration control, described as one of the major worries of the receiving countries. In other words, after briefly suggesting that migrants may contribute positively to the demography and economy of the rich countries, immigration is more emphatically defined as a problem, as is also the case in politics and the media. These problems are described as follows:
The countries that receive immigrants consider that the number of foreign workers they can take in is related to the number of vacancies they need to fill. If these limits are exceeded, illegal flows may result of persons involved in clandestine jobs and the hidden economy.
The fact that immigrants do not find work may cause social problems (…)
All this favors the arrival (…) of a large number of clandestine immigrants through itineraries controlled by mafias who make money with smuggling people and who even endanger the lives of the immigrants (p. 178).
The problem with such passages is not that they are totally wrong or misguided, but rather that the selection of negative aspects of immigration and immigrants creates a social representation that is predominantly negative. If only a handful of things are being said about immigrants, and these are the same kind of things the children hear from parents or friends or see on TV, then this can only confirm established stereotypes. It would in that case be much more important to take advantage of the textbooks to emphasize those aspects of immigration than are less known, or that tend to be denied or forgotten. Thus, in the cited passage, immigrants are associated with such negative concepts as ‘illegal’, ‘clandestine’ as ‘creating social problems’, ‘smuggling’ and ‘mafias’, even when they are victims of the latter. That immigrants often contribute positively to the demography, the economy, the diversity, renewal and cultural richness of their new homeland, would have been an alternative and less stereotypical way of formulating the consequences of immigration. And among the social problems one should not only mention or vaguely suggest those caused by them, but also those caused by the receiving population, as is the case for prejudice, discrimination and racism.
The latter issues are briefly dealt with in a special section on “Immigrants and social problems at the place of destination”, where we find a brief typology of different relations between immigrants and people in the receiving country, such as integration, multiculturalism and marginalization (p. 179). When immigrants are integrated this give us their norms, values and habits; this does not cause any problems except a “loss of personality”. Multiculturalism is defined as the acceptation of different norms, values and conduct by the receiving society, and such should not lead to any problems. The third situations is defined as follows:
Marginalization or conflict arise when the receiving society and the newcomers do not accept each other and do not respect the values, norms and behavior of the others. Problems of racism and xenophobia may thus be unleashed.
Migration policies are essential to avoid conflicts and to favor integration and multiculturalism. (p. 179).
Again, in this passage, immigration and immigrants are presupposed to be related to problems – which are said not to occur when the immigrants integrate and do not need to occur when the receiving society recognizes and accepts the immigrants. The latter passage mentions racism and xenophobia as some kind of natural phenomenon, or as a problem that spontaneously arises, and mutually between groups, and not as something engaged in by people of the receiving society, that is of Us in the Northern countries. No more is said about racism and its consequences than this one vague sentence. Moreover, the way integration is defined it rather stands for assimilation, because there is no mention of possibly changing norms, values and habits of the receiving society. Finally, the textbook unambiguously seems to support “migration policies”, thus implicitly favoring a limitation of immigration, and defining the problems and conflicts in terms of the immigrants and not in those of the receiving society.
One year later…
A year later, the students of the third ESO grade get more information about immigration in the next book of the series, Marca 3 (written by A. Albet Mas, P. Benejam Arguimbau, M. Casas Vilalta, P. Comas Solé and M. Ollér Freixa). Thus, in Chapter 3 about the population of the world, there is a section on migrations today of two pages, with two pictures and a world map with arrows indicating migration ‘flows’.
The first picture is of one of the ‘pateras’,
that is, the little boats used by undocumented immigrants crossing the
of Gibraltar. The second shows a group of these immigrants sitting
a police van behind them, obviously having been captured by the Guardia
the vast majority of immigrants arrive by airplane, and through the
As in the previous volume, the text summarizes the main
immigration, and emphasizes that immigration is largely caused by
and the difference in income between the rich North and the poor South,
between Eastern and
In the section with assignments there are three pages
immigration First a map and some text gives some further information
migration in the past, which includes the emigration of many Spanish
The next section, on immigration to
The chapter on the cities of the world has a section that
their multicultural nature and with immigration (p. 116 ff). It is
emphasized that although in the developed countries there is a feeling
immigrants, most immigration in the world takes place between countries
Concentration of ethnic minorities in run-down spaces. In these places with cheaper rents poverty and the deterioration of housing are more prominent.
The people who live in these neighborhoods have difficulty to find work and, when they do not find it, very often they have to work in unstable and ill paid jobs. Poverty promotes the development of insecurity and the marginalization of these urban areas.
Big families. The immigrant populations of other cultures usually have more sons and daughters than families of our own cultural environment and therefore the percentage of citizens of other culture will continue to increase, even when no new immigrants would come. (p. 117).
These passages are quite typical of textbooks on immigration. What is being said is not totally wrong, but seriously incomplete and biased. The bias consists first in the fact that only negative aspects of immigration to the big cities of the North are mentioned. Secondly, by omitting crucial information a wrong impression about immigrants and immigration is bound to be learned by the students. Thus, although it is true that families of people immigrating to Europe and especially Spain tend to be bigger, it is also true that within one or two generation immigrant birth rates soon adapt to those in the host country, and that therefore there is no reason to speak of the continuous growth of the immigrant population due to their high birthrates. Similarly, the first passage focuses on the “insecurity” of immigrant neighborhoods, and thus implicitly establishes the stereotypical, if not racist, link between poverty, illegality and delinquency. No positive consequences of migration for the cities of the North are mentioned, such as the contributions to the vital economy of the cities (construction, services, etc) and to the diversity of their population and cultures. Indeed, except from one minor remark about economic contributions, these textbooks say virtually nothing about the fact that construction, hotels, restaurants, and so on, in the cities of the North would cease to function without the presence of (low paid) immigrant workers. That is, as much as the immigrants need the jobs of the North, the North needs the cheap labor of the South. Neither this vital interdependence nor the positive aspects of immigration are highlighted in the textbook, not even at the level of the third ESO grade – for kids of 15 years old. Rather they are confronted with stereotypes about illegal immigration in ‘pateras’, run-down neighborhoods, delinquency, and high birth rates. Barely one page of biased information about immigrants in ‘our’ cities in a book of more than 300 pages is rather scant for the students to learn about a social environment that many (and soon most) of the students will experience in the multicultural cities of the North. Indeed, the urban adolescents who use these books need to read more about the details of Catalan agriculture.
A Castilian Textbook
The second book I shall examine more closely is written
and used in
Probably due to the general curriculum, the contents of
and Castilian textbooks are very similar. Thus, of the 4 volumes, the
deals with physical geography, and with prehistory and the “first
The second volume, which will concern us here, has six
first on population and economic activity, the second on social and
organization, the third on the cultural diversity of human groups, and
fourth, the fifth and the sixth on medieval history. The first blocks
several lessons on the topics that interest us: immigration, ethnic
Migration is dealt with as part of the lesson on
population. As is
the case in the Catalan textbook also this textbook makes a distinction
“underdeveloped” and “developed” countries. The first have high birth
vaguely explained by the “lack of control over births”, and the latter
birthrates, explained, as in the Catalan textbook, by the
women in the world of work”, and –strangely – also by the “general
aging of the
population” (p. 15). Religious beliefs and traditional customs contrary
methods of birth control are also mentioned as influencing birthrate,
as economic circumstances, for instance when families need their
help them with work on the land. Interestingly religious beliefs are
as being associated with high birth rates in “underdeveloped”
whereas until the 1970s and under Franco, the same was true in
Migration is explained in terms of hunger, looking for work, the wish to improve life, wars, and political and religion persecution, as is also the case in the Catalan textbook. Again, no economic causes of the receiving countries are mentioned, so that the benefits of immigration only appear to be for those who immigrate. This is also the reason why this book uses the word “to face”, that is, something that is a problem:
At the moment the developed countries have to face an important migration flow from the underdeveloped countries (p. 17).
It is however added that
in general immigration favors the developed countries, which thus get cheap labor and a young population. But when the number of immigrants is high, racism and xenophobia may take place, o feelings of rejection towards those who arrive from abroad (p. 17).
Again, we find the
same problems as in the Catalan textbook: racism and xenophobia are
only in one sentence, are formulated as something that simply “occurs”,
natural phenomenon, and is not explicitly attributed to (Spanish)
Moreover in Spanish the metaphor “brotes”
which literally means “shoots” of a plant, and which is normally used
to something that is incipient, and still small or reduced. This
association of racism with nature, and also mitigates its magnitude.
The use of
the euphemism “feelings of rejection” (sentimientos
de rechazo) further confirms this
well-known strategy of de-emphasizing our
bad things. In a special ‘report’ of one page about immigration to
same euphemism is used as one of the factors that make integration
for most immigrants, together with problems of language, customs,
residence and work permits. Though very succinctly, this book thus
that immigrants also have difficulties in
One of the next sections in the book deals with different
societies and cultures, such as traditional (now virtually extinct)
hunter-gatherer and agrarian societies and (post) industrial societies,
first associated with the
Again, as such there is no problem associating for
instance poor or
agrarian societies with the “
In section on social stratification there is also a
‘report’ of one
page on “ethnic minorities”. Brief mention is made of the Gitanos as
one of the
major minority groups in
In our times many countries in the world are becoming multiethnic societies. This fact on occasion leads to the emergence of certain attitudes such as prejudice, discrimination and racism. Prejudices are the consequence of judging all people belonging to a social group on the basis of preconceived ideas, and not on the correct knowledge of these people. Discrimination is a behavior, an attitude which implies that certain rights or opportunities are withheld from minority groups. Finally, racism consist in considering others as superior or inferior as a function of physical, racial or ethnic differences.
Facing this behavior each day there are more people conscious of the necessity to promote cultural pluralism, considering minority cultures as a form of social and cultural enrichment (p. 64).
We see, again, that prejudice, discrimination and racism
miraculously erupt as a consequence of the multiethnic society, as a
phenomenon, not as something specific people engage in. The succinct
further explanation of these terms again remain
very general and
very vague, and in no way seem to
implicate Us, white Europeans. If not as ‘natural’ phenomena of
prejudice, discrimination and racism are described of any multiethnic
in the world. In other words, white students in
Unlike the Catalan textbook, this Castilian textbook also
the cultural diversity of the various regions of the world (Western
North America, Latin America, North Africa, etc.), although most of
deals with the usual geographical facts about states: population,
organization, resources, industry, and so on. We read much on highly
commerce, industry, and so on, but not a word on immigration,
the contribution of immigrants to the wealth of
population of Iberoamerica is largely catholic and of mestizo
and Indian race. The population
of the white race only forms the majority in
Remarkable here is first the use of the word ‘race’ to
refer to mestizos and Indians, a notion
that is not even
problematized in a textbook on geography and the social sciences.
apart from the factual errors and omissions (no mention is made of
A special ‘report’ of one page is dedicated to the
The Hispanic and Portuguese colonization also gave rise in Iberoamerica to an alarming decrease of the number of native Indians. (p. 114).
Thus, somehow the decrease of the indigenous population
related to colonization, but it is not explicitly spelled out how. Again, no word on colonial history,
no word on massacres of indigenous people, no word of the way they were
discriminated, oppressed and marginalized by Spaniard, Portuguese (as
Dutch and English) colonizers. As elsewhere, not only ‘our’ racism in
Similar remarks are relevant for the treatment of
(…) managed to overcome the apartheid regime and the confrontation between the black majority and the while minority (p. 121).
This description presupposes that apartheid was merely
as a joint process – and not because of black struggle and resistance
another page, as part of an assignment a few more lines say some more
apartheid and on Mandela). Also, apartheid is not defined in terms of
domination by the white population, but as a kind of conflict between
groups. This is one of the many ways in which white (European) racism
On the other hand, Europeans are said to have introduced “modern”
whereas other agriculture is “rudimentary” (p. 124). Again, there are
no comments on the role of the North,
The final sections of the book are historical and deal
Middle Ages. As is the case for the Catalan textbook, we also here find
extensive information about Islam and the “Muslim” occupation of
The third volume of this textbook largely deals with a
and further elaboration of geographical notions, such as the physical
properties of the earth and of
As in the previous volume there is some information about
but this is very general and does not apply specifically to
No further explanation is given about the lack of integration, and why the description is given a reflexive form (“integrate themselves”) as if integration is only a one-way process. We do not even find one single remark on this special page on racism, prejudice and discrimination. Also it is always remarkable that the illegal residence of immigrants appears to be such an important information among the few things that are being said about immigrants, and that we never find any remark about the many business people who employ these same people illegally. In other words, the emphasis on their bad things, and mitigating or ignoring our bad things seems to be regular feature about all passages about immigrants in these textbooks. When the textbook finally deals with the population of Europe it briefly mentions the “importance of migrations” in a subtitle, but the text itself does not explain why immigration was and is to important for Europe.
In a passage on “minorities in the world” we find a few
north-African immigrants who come to
Apart from the rather simplistic and redundant
this passage shows that the authors have really very little to say
immigrants, other than repeating stereotypes about lacking integration,
very mitigated version – in passive voice – of what might be
discrimination: “they encounter difficulties being accepted”. The students have to learn more about the
crops, natural resources, animals or types of landscapes in various
the world, then about one of the major phenomena of our time,
about one of the major problems of
Concluding out analysis of a Catalan and a Castilian textbook we may conclude that there are of course no explicitly racist passages. However, we do find a confirmation of many of the usual problems of representing other people, other countries, and in particular of dealing with migration, its causes and consequences. These problems may be summarized as follows:
show the stereotypical
polarization between Us
and Them, between Us in the North, in
· Immigration is represented as motivated and caused only by the needs of immigrants, not by the needs or benefits of the receiving countries.
· The information about the immigrants is scarce, and largely limited to some simple statistics about how many there are, where they come from, and where they settle.
· Their work is stereotypically described as what Spanish people do not want to do. There is no diversity of information about motivation of immigration or type of work the immigrants do.
· Even if little information is given about immigrants, one of the standard items is virtually always that many of them are illegal. No information is given about “illegal” employers who give work to immigrants without papers.
· Also, it is emphasized that immigrants have problems to “integrate themselves”. Little information is given about the causes of lacking integration, and such causes hardly have to do with the receiving population.
discrimination are sometimes mentioned, but in general, abstract terms,
as a major problem of Us in
· More generally, negative aspects of Us in the North are ignored, toned down or described in very vague and general terms. This is also true for the (lacking) account about colonization and its consequences, as well as contemporary globalization.
These are not incidental problems, but structural
characterize virtually all passages, and since the textbooks are so
standardized, we may venture the conclusion that what we have found in
analysis may be generalized for all textbooks currently used in
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